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While eschewing completeness in the range of variants and in the citation of witnessesthis edition does provide informed readers with a basis by which they can judge for themselves which readings more accurately reflect the originals.
At Erwin Nestle's request, he reviewed and expanded the critical apparatus, adding many more manuscripts.
History[ edit ] The first edition published by Eberhard Nestle in combined the readings of the editions of TischendorfWestcott and Hort and Weymouthplacing the majority reading of these in the text and the third reading in the apparatus. The most important Papyri and newly discovered Uncials, asa few Minuscules 33,occasionally also lectionaries were taken into account.
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Methodology[ edit ] The Greek text as presented is what biblical scholars refer to as the "critical text". The Greek text of the 28th edition is the same as that of the 5th oavct online dating of the United Bible Societies The Greek New Testament abbreviated UBS5 although there are a few differences between them in paragraphing, capitalization, punctuation and spelling.
Since the majority of old manuscripts in existence are minuscules, they are often referred to as the Majority Text. Most scholars view uncial text as the most accurate; however, a few authors, such as New Testament scholar Maurice A.
Aland submitted his work on NA to the editorial committee of the United Bible Societies Greek New Testament of which he was also a member and it became the basic text of their third edition UBS3 infour years before it was published as the 26th edition of Nestle-Aland.
They use a number of factors to help determine probable readings, such as the date of the witness earlier is usually betterthe geographical distribution of a reading, and the likelihood of accidental or intentional corruptions.
It is worth noting, though, that the Majority Text as a whole is classified by the editors of the NA28 of whom Metzger is one as a "consistently cited witness of the first order," meaning that whenever the text presented differs from the majority text this is recorded in the apparatus along with the alternate reading.
Eberhard's son Erwin Nestle took over after his father's death and issued the 13th edition in The critical text is an eclectic text compiled by a committee that compares readings from a large number of manuscripts in order to determine which reading is most likely to be closest to the original.
In later editions, Nestle began noting the attestation of certain important manuscripts in his apparatus. Hodges claim that the minuscule texts the Byzantine text-type more accurately reflect the "autographs" or original texts than an eclectic text like NA28 that relies heavily on manuscripts of the Alexandrian text-type.
In the book, a large number of textual variants, or differences between manuscripts, are noted in the critical apparatus —the extensive footnotes that distinguish the Novum Testamentum Graece from other Greek New Testaments.
This view has been criticized by Gordon Fee  and Bruce Metzger  among others. This edition introduced a separate critical apparatus and finally introduced consistency to the majority reading principle. This eventually led to the 25th edition of